3. Fundamental Overview
4. Big picture
INFLUENTIAL INSTITUTIONS & PEOPLE FOR THE NZD/USD
The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is New Zealand's central bank. Like most central banks, the Reserve Bank is primarily a policy organisation, and exists to do three main things: formulate and implement monetary policy to maintain price stability, promote the maintenance of a sound and efficient financial system and meet the currency needs of the public.
The Federal Reserve System (Fed) is the central banking system of the United States and it has two main targets or reasons to be: one is to keep unemployment rate to their lowest possible levels and the other one, to keep inflation around 2%.
The Federal Reserve System's structure is composed of the presidentially appointed Board of Governors, partially presidentially appointed Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). The FOMC organizes 8 meetings in a year and reviews economic and financial conditions. Also determines the appropriate stance of monetary policy and assesses the risks to its long-run goals of price stability and sustainable economic growth. FOMC Minutes are released by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve and are a clear guide to the future US interest rate policy.
Grant Spencer is Acting Governor for the Bank. His tenure in leading the Bank became effective on 27 September 2017 and will end on 26 March 2018. His tenure covers the post-election period while the next Government makes a permanent appointment. Previously Grant held the position of Deputy Governor and Head of Financial Stability from April 2007 until September 2017. Grant's previous positions include: Assistant Governor and Head of Economics at the Reserve Bank; senior treasury and strategy positions at ANZ Banking Group; and Alternate Executive Director at the International Monetary Fund. He currently serves as chair of the OECD's Committee on Financial Markets. Grant has served as a Non-Executive Director of the New Zealand Institute of Economic Research and as a Council member of the New Zealand Association of Economists and the New Zealand Corporate Treasurers Association. Grant holds a BA (Hons) in Economics and Information Science from Victoria University, and an M.Sc (Dist) in Econometrics and Mathematical Economics from the London School of Economics and Political Science.
Jerome H. Powell took office as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on February 5, 2018, for a four-year term. Mr. Powell also serves as Chairman of the Federal Open Market Committee, the System's principal monetary policymaking body. Mr. Powell has served as a member of the Board of Governors since taking office on May 25, 2012, to fill an unexpired term. He was reappointed to the Board and sworn in on June 16, 2014, for a term ending January 31, 2028. Prior to his appointment to the Board, Mr. Powell was a visiting scholar at the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington, D.C., where he focused on federal and state fiscal issues. From 1997 through 2005, Mr. Powell was a partner at The Carlyle Group. Mr. Powell served as an Assistant Secretary and as Undersecretary of the Treasury under President George H.W. Bush, with responsibility for policy on financial institutions, the Treasury debt market, and related areas. Prior to joining the Administration, he worked as a lawyer and investment banker in New York City. Mr. Powell was born in February 1953 in Washington, D.C.