EUR/USD has lost its traction in the American session and retreated to the 1.0550 area. In the absence of high-tier macroeconomic data releases, the dollar is staging a rebound with the US Dollar Index rising above 103.00 and forcing the pair to edge lower.
GBP/USD has extended its sideways grind below 1.2500 into the second half of the day on Friday with the dollar staying resilient against its rivals. Nevertheless, the pair remains on track to snap a four-week losing streak.
Gold came under modest bearish pressure in the American session on Friday and dropped below $1,840. The benchmark 10-year US Treasury bond yield stays quiet above 2.8%, helping XAU/USD limit its losses ahead of the weekend.
The EUR/USD (or Euro Dollar) currency pair belongs to the group of 'Majors', a way to mention the most important pairs in the world. The popularity of Euro Dollar is due to the fact that it gathers two main economies: Europe and the United States of America. This is a widely traded currency pair where the Euro is the base currency and the US Dollar is the counter currency. Since the EUR/USD pair consists of more than half of all the trading volume worldwide in the Forex Market, it is almost impossible for a gap to appear, let alone a consequent breakaway gap in the opposite direction.
The EUR/USD reached an all time high of 1.6038 in July 2008 and a record low of 0.8231 in October 2000.
Much water has run under the bridge in 2021. Central bankers from around the world have been cooling down speculation on persistently high inflation, calling in “temporarily,” and forecasting it would slowly stabilize to more suitable levels by 2022. But make no mistake: Hot inflation is the elephant in the room. Central banks' measures will be key for EUR/USD moves this next year. The coronavirus pandemic that hit the world in March 2020 still goes on and will also be a critical event in 2022, although there’s a better economic perspective.
The organization that most impact has nowadays the EUR/USD is the Federal Reserve, the central banking system of the United States of America created with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, after a series of financial panics led to the desire for central control of the monetary system in order to alleviate financial crises. Jerome Powell is Fed's Chair, serving in that office since February 2018.
The Board of Governors (also known as the Federal Reserve Board) is carefully observed. The board meets several times per year and announces the interest rates. If rates remain unchanged, attention turns to the tone of the FOMC (Federal Open Market Committee) statement. Also particularly significant are the 12 Federal Reserve Banks that make up the Federal Reserve. These Federal District Reserve Districts issue their own statements and research data that give hints about the health of the US economy and might as well influence dollar-related currency pairs.
The US Government is as well an institution of great importance for the EUR/USD pair: events as administration statements, new laws and regulations or fiscal policy can increase or decrease the value of the US Dollar and the currencies traded against it.
Not only American institutions influence the EUR/USD pair, European too of course. And the number one organization is the European Central Bank, which is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy within the Eurozone, comprising 19 member states of the European Union and is one of the largest monetary areas in the world. ECB's main objective is to maintain price stability for the Euro while setting and implementing the monetary policy for the Eurozone (including interest rates). It also conducts foreign exchange operations and takes care of the foreign reserves of the European System of Central Banks. Christine Lagarde is ECB's President since November 2019.