At first glance, higher inflation seems like good news for governments. After all, inflation erodes the real value of debt and lowers the public debt/GDP ratio through a higher nominal GDP. However, the impact of inflation on public finances depends on whether higher inflation was anticipated by financial markets and on its expected persistence. Both factors would influence the borrowing cost and hence the dynamics of the debt ratio through the difference between this cost and nominal GDP growth. Public finances should benefit from having a central bank that is credible in its ability to keep inflation expectations well anchored and is not afraid of tightening policy when inflation has moved well above target. In the euro area, higher Bund yields cause higher sovereign spreads, reflecting a higher risk premium, which in the longer run will worsen the dynamics of the debt ratio. It implies that fiscal policy also has a role to play by keeping the debt ratio under control. 

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